Radical scavenging activity was also measured in vitro by the tetrazolium nitroblue assay on a commercial juice, by assessing the potential capacity of the juice to protect cells or lipids from oxidative alteration promoted by superoxide anion radicals (SAR). The SAR scavenging activity of noni juice was times higher than that of vitamin C, times that of pycnogenol, and almost of the same order as that of grape seed powder. 1 New iridoid glucosides isolated from methanol extracts of noni fruits, neolignan, and americanin A were found to be potent antioxidants. 23
Esters are also present in fruit and berry wines as one of the major ingredients defining final wine taste. They are responsible for the fruity bouquet of wines, where mixtures of esters may not possess the same intensity or qualitative attributes as individually ( van der Merwe and van Wyk, 1981 ). In pomegranate wine, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate are the dominant forms, followed by minor amounts of other esters such as ethyl propanoate and isobutyl acetate ( Kafkas et al., 2006 ). In cashew, mango and apple wines total amount of esters were 82–102, 15–35, and mg/L, respectively ( Wang et al., 2004; Attri, 2009; Li et al., 2013 ). Hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, and 2-methylbutyl acetate are present in ciders but, if thermally treated, ciders lost 30% of their original ester and aldehyde content during storage ( Azhu Valappil et al., 2009 ). Ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate , and ethyl hexanoate were the major esters of the strawberry wine, taking almost 90% of all identified aroma compounds measured by head-space gas chromatography ( Kafkas et al., 2006 ). In addition, the total amount of esters estimated in different strawberry wine ranged from 78 to 103 mg/L depending on the wine-making method ( Sharma et al., 2009 ). In blackberry wines, major esters are ethyl caprylate, diethyl succinate, and ethyl caproate, with overall values ranging from and mg/L depending on the winemaking procedure ( Gao et al., 2012 ).