Male androgen

CAIS is also associated with an increased risk for gonadal tumors (. germ cell malignancy) in adulthood if gonadectomy is not performed. [33] [56] [57] [58] The risk of malignant germ cell tumors in women with CAIS increases with age and has been estimated to be % at 25 years and 33% at 50 years. [58] The incidence of gonadal tumors in childhood is thought to be relatively low; a recent review of the medical literature [56] found that only three cases of malignant germ cell tumors in prepubescent girls have been reported in association with CAIS in the last 100 years. Some have estimated the incidence of germ cell malignancy to be as low as % before puberty. [1]

Using appropriate tests for monitoring hormone therapy is crucial in establishing the appropriate dosing regimen. This reduces the chance of undesirable side effects and maximizes beneficial effects. For example, excessive use of androgens (testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA, and testosterone derivatives) can activate subclinical prostate tumors which are androgen-dependent. Monitoring is especially important in older males. By the age of 70, at least 50% of men have subclinical prostate cancer. These men are especially susceptible to prostate growth stimulation by androgens.

A far more common cause of excess production of androgens in women is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome ). This syndrome is characterized by excess androgens and the presence of a menstrual disorder. Androgen excess often manifests as hirsutism, with or without increased serum concentrations of one or more androgens. Some women have increased serum androgen concentrations and no hirsutism. A variety of menstrual disorders have been associated with PCOS, including oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, anovulation, and infertility . An ultrasound may reveal multiple ovarian cysts. Many women with this syndrome are obese . Another characteristic feature of PCOS is tissue resistance to the action of insulin . This is expected in obese women, but it is also present in nonobese women with the syndrome. Insulin resistance leads to an increase in insulin secretion (hyperinsulinemia), which is thought to stimulate ovarian androgen production. Hyperinsulinemia also decreases the production of sex hormone-binding globulin so that more of the testosterone in the serum is free and accessible to the tissues. In addition, the conversion of androgens to estrogens in adipose tissue is increased (particularly in obese women), which leads to a small sustained increase in the secretion of luteinizing hormone and to the suppression of ovulation .

The safety and effectiveness of any therapy is largely dependent on the care provided with the treatment plan. The lead researcher of the VA Database study pointed out, “Patients who failed to achieve the therapeutic range after testosterone replacement therapy did not see a reduction in [heart attack] or stroke and had significantly less benefit on mortality.“ A statement that underlines the importance of seeking expertise when considering testosterone therapy, including choosing expert practitioners that use sensitive lab testing and specialize in hormone therapy.

Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis . Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was regulated through the androgen receptor in the wild-type male rats, but not in the TMF male rats. To further test the role of activated androgen receptors on AHN, flutamide , an antiandrogen drug that competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for androgen receptors , and dihydrotestosterone were administered to normal male rats. Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells.

Male androgen

male androgen

The safety and effectiveness of any therapy is largely dependent on the care provided with the treatment plan. The lead researcher of the VA Database study pointed out, “Patients who failed to achieve the therapeutic range after testosterone replacement therapy did not see a reduction in [heart attack] or stroke and had significantly less benefit on mortality.“ A statement that underlines the importance of seeking expertise when considering testosterone therapy, including choosing expert practitioners that use sensitive lab testing and specialize in hormone therapy.

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